Thus it can be seen that plant relationships and positioning are intensely studied. These plants and systems are further enhanced when we make sure we:
Increase edge and apply ecological-economic ethics.
Increasing the edge is desired because where differing systems meet, this creates an intense area of productivity and useful connections. The greatest example of this is the coast. Where the land and the sea meet there is a particularly rich area that meets a disproportionate percentage of human and animal needs. This is evidenced by the fact that the overwhelming majority of humanity lives within 100km of the sea.
A basic principle of ecological-economic ethics is therefore to add value to existing crops, because this reduces waste. A permaculture design therefore seeks to provide a wide range of solutions by including its main ethics as an integral part of the final value-added design. Crucially, it seeks to address problems that include the economic question of how to either make money from production or exchanging production for labour. Each final design should include economic considerations as well as giving equal weight to maintaining ecological balance, meeting people’s needs and eliminating exploitation.